And the answer (for now) is: no.Not with the out-of the box product. But as many of you will know, TFS is extensible in multiple ways, plus it provides an extensive API for accessing the data stored int he Team Projects.
MVP Mathias Olausson has combined these techniques and uses the WebBrowser custom workitem control with a small web application that uses the TFS Client Object Model to read the test results from the Project Collection database. This allows everyone to put the Test Results in the Test Case work item with ease.
Now that TFS 2013 Update 3 has made the Test Plan and the Test Suite a proper work item, it should also be possible to show the rolled up status for these in these work items using the same trick! very nice!
Until Microsoft puts this directly in the product this will work pretty well as a workaround :).